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In the 1960s and 1970s, building upon liberal theory and procedural justice, much of the discourse of medical ethics went through a dramatic shift and largely reconfigured itself into bioethics.Since the 1970s, the growing influence of ethics in contemporary medicine can be seen in the increasing use of Institutional Review Boards to evaluate experiments on human subjects, the establishment of hospital ethics committees, the expansion of the role of clinician ethicists, and the integration of ethics into many medical school curricula.Historically, Western medical ethics may be traced to guidelines on the duty of physicians in antiquity, such as the Hippocratic Oath, and early Christian teachings.
In the medieval and early modern period, the field is indebted to Islamic scholarship such as Ishaq ibn Ali al-Ruhawi (who wrote the Conduct of a Physician, the first book dedicated to medical ethics), Avicenna's Canon of Medicine and Muhammad ibn Zakariya ar-Razi (known as Rhazes in the West), Jewish thinkers such as Maimonides, Roman Catholic scholastic thinkers such as Thomas Aquinas, and the case-oriented analysis (casuistry) of Catholic moral theology.
These intellectual traditions continue in Catholic, Islamic and Jewish medical ethics.
Some have questioned whether the backlash against historically excessive paternalism in favor of patient autonomy has inhibited the proper use of soft paternalism to the detriment of outcomes for some patients.
The definition of autnomony is the ability of an individual to make a rational, un-influenced decision.
These values include the respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice.
The term medical ethics first dates back to 1803, when English author and physician Thomas Percival published a document describing the requirements and expectations of medical professionals within medical facilities.
As this field continues to develop and change throughout history, the focus remains on fair, balanced, and moral thinking.
Medical ethics encompasses a practical application in clinical settings as well as scholarly work on its history, philosophy, and sociology.
In 1847, the American Medical Association adopted its first code of ethics, with this being based in large part upon Percival's work.
While the secularized field borrowed largely from Catholic medical ethics, in the 20th century a distinctively liberal Protestant approach was articulated by thinkers such as Joseph Fletcher.
By the 18th and 19th centuries, medical ethics emerged as a more self-conscious discourse.Tags: Adult Dating, affair dating, sex dating