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Arabic script was much better adapted to Persian, and the orthographic rigidity of Arabic perhaps suggested a matching uniformity in Persian.
The nature of Islam encouraged a rapid social as well as geographical expansion of literacy in Arabic, so it is quite possible that newly literate converts, or at least the children of converts, were already writing Persian in Arabic characters in the second generation of Iranian Islam.
The former (synthetic) strategy was favored in earlier Classical Persian, and is still productive in Tajik; the latter (analytic) is preferred in Standard Persian. The degree to which not only individual loanwords, but also their characteristic patterns, entered Persian consciousness is shown in a number of common Persian words coined on an Arabic morphological pattern from a native Persian or other lexical base: thus .
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Thus, a sample from the versified national epic, the , yields ca. A number of Arabic characters represent consonants alien to Persian, which are therefore assimilated to the closest Persian phonemes: thus ) is retained after a consonant, but in speech is generally realized before a consonant as a prolongation of the vowel, and between vowels as a glide or a bilabial fricative, though in careful enunciation it may be sounded as in Arabic (/sowāl/ or /so’āl/ for (probably approximated in MPers.; see Pisowicz, pp.
32 percent and 17 percent respectively (see ARABIC (iii), p. In a sample of Sufi verse from about the 14th century these proportions rise to 51.8 percent and 24.3percent respectively (Utas, esp. 75-102, 121ff.); and in the prose fiction of Bozorg Alavi from the 1950s they drop to 46.5 percent and 19.7 percent respectively (Koppe, pp. 135, 139-40) are pronounced alike in Standard Persian (initially as a voiced velar stop or affricate, elsewhere as a voiced velar fricative; cf. 230), but are distinguished in most other dialects, including Afghan and Tajik Persian.
Thereafter, the bulk of Arabic loanwords entered Persian as learned words in the writings of bilingual poets and scholars, most of them trickling down into spoken usage in due course (Telegdi).
Clearly it was not a paucity of technical and intellectual terminology in Middle Persian that necessitated the massive influx of Arabic. Some of these soon came back into Persian in Arabicized form, to replace or supplement the Persian etymon (e.g., ‘measure’)—showing that prestige was a factor in reversing the current.
Thus Persian ‘operation, deal’ each belong to a cluster of assonant near-synonyms which collectively define the greater part of mankind’s social pursuits. We have no way of documenting the first two centuries of the influence of Arabic on Persian, i.e., before about the middle of the 9th century, to which the first extant examples of Persian poetry are attributed (Lazard).
Persian was long familiar with Semitic languages and their writing systems: Old Persian used a simple and efficient syllabary adapted from Babylonian cuneiform, and Middle Persian a rather less efficient adaptation of Aramaic script, with literacy in each case confined to a small class of priests and scribes.
This appears to be confirmed by a survey of the “Sachgruppen” or experiential fields into which Koppe (after Dornseiff) sorts the Arabic vocabulary of a sample of modern Persian fiction: out of a total of 1,346 loanwords, those referring to the more vague abstracta, such as sentiment, volition and ethics, total 479 (ca. In another such experiment, comparing a random sample of Arabic loans in four languages, the vocabulary to do with material culture in Spanish was 52 percent of the Arabic loan inventory, while in Persian the total was only 14 percent; the Arabic vocabulary of general intellectual life was 8 percent in Spanish, 24 percent in Persian (J. Perry, “Arabic loan vocabulary in Persian, Turkish, Urdu, etc: Comparative indices,” paper delivered at the 201st Annual Meeting of the American Oriental Society, University of California, Berkeley, March 1991).
36 percent); those referring to intangibilia with strong cultural, perceptual, social or other relations (e.g., ‘point’), plus tangibilia that are systems rather than entities (e.g., ‘crowd’) total 731 (ca. Many Arabic loans have emerged from their sojourn in Persian poetry or scholarship or vernacular idiom enriched in meaning, often with an extra identity in Turkish, Urdu, or the languages beyond. the evolution of English ‘intercourse’ from social to sexual).
The following lists the principal identifiable classes of Arabic vocabulary incorporated into Persian, with some indications of how they fit into Persian structure and usage. With the exception of the feminine-ending loans (see below), Arabic nouns (and most other classes) are inducted into Persian in their bare stem form, without inflection or other modification.Tags: Adult Dating, affair dating, sex dating