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ARABIC ELEMENTS IN PERSIAN Since the Arab conquest of Iran in the seventh century and the subsequent conversion of a majority of the population to Islam, Arabic, as the language of contact, of the Muslim scripture and liturgy, and of a large volume of wide-ranging scholarly literature for more than a thousand years thereafter, has exercised a profound influence on the Persian language.
Apart from the writing system, this influence is evident chiefly in the large Arabic vocabulary that has been incorporated into the Persian lexicon.
Distribution between in the modern inventory appears to be determined primarily by semantic features, and additionally by factors of syntactic and stylistic environment or historical evolution of the words (Perry, 1991, pp. Thus, nouns with more abstract and intangible, or less imageable and countable, referents tend to end in (Tk.) ‘tale, story’.
Thus the system of binary sorting in Persian was passed on to Turkish, Urdu and other languages of central, south and southwest Asia together with the Arabic loans that they incorporated via Persian, and was selectively expanded or modified. A loanword may also signal its assimilation into the vernacular by an expansion or shift of grammatical categories.
Thereafter, the bulk of Arabic loanwords entered Persian as learned words in the writings of bilingual poets and scholars, most of them trickling down into spoken usage in due course (Telegdi).
Clearly it was not a paucity of technical and intellectual terminology in Middle Persian that necessitated the massive influx of Arabic. Some of these soon came back into Persian in Arabicized form, to replace or supplement the Persian etymon (e.g., ‘measure’)—showing that prestige was a factor in reversing the current.
The following lists the principal identifiable classes of Arabic vocabulary incorporated into Persian, with some indications of how they fit into Persian structure and usage. With the exception of the feminine-ending loans (see below), Arabic nouns (and most other classes) are inducted into Persian in their bare stem form, without inflection or other modification.
(A convenient summary of the Arabic element in Persian, largely in tabular form, is to be found in Elwell-Sutton, pp. To this form may be juxtaposed all appropriate Persian affixes and clitics: ‘acceptance’).
The syntactically determined variation in Arabic (though in context it may initially have suggested a model) was irrelevant to Persian, where these loans needed to be lexicalized in stable forms: accordingly, some were written with regular final (realized in Standard Persian as /-e/), including some 80 items lexicalized with both endings (i.e., 40 pairs of doublets).
As the only class of loanwords that have been systematically sorted orthographically, an analysis of the rationales behind this dichotomy affords some insight into the process of loanword incorporation from Arabic into Persian.
This appears to be confirmed by a survey of the “Sachgruppen” or experiential fields into which Koppe (after Dornseiff) sorts the Arabic vocabulary of a sample of modern Persian fiction: out of a total of 1,346 loanwords, those referring to the more vague abstracta, such as sentiment, volition and ethics, total 479 (ca. In another such experiment, comparing a random sample of Arabic loans in four languages, the vocabulary to do with material culture in Spanish was 52 percent of the Arabic loan inventory, while in Persian the total was only 14 percent; the Arabic vocabulary of general intellectual life was 8 percent in Spanish, 24 percent in Persian (J. Perry, “Arabic loan vocabulary in Persian, Turkish, Urdu, etc: Comparative indices,” paper delivered at the 201st Annual Meeting of the American Oriental Society, University of California, Berkeley, March 1991).
36 percent); those referring to intangibilia with strong cultural, perceptual, social or other relations (e.g., ‘point’), plus tangibilia that are systems rather than entities (e.g., ‘crowd’) total 731 (ca. Many Arabic loans have emerged from their sojourn in Persian poetry or scholarship or vernacular idiom enriched in meaning, often with an extra identity in Turkish, Urdu, or the languages beyond. the evolution of English ‘intercourse’ from social to sexual).
The former (synthetic) strategy was favored in earlier Classical Persian, and is still productive in Tajik; the latter (analytic) is preferred in Standard Persian. The degree to which not only individual loanwords, but also their characteristic patterns, entered Persian consciousness is shown in a number of common Persian words coined on an Arabic morphological pattern from a native Persian or other lexical base: thus .Tags: Adult Dating, affair dating, sex dating