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In fact, in the human brain there is to date no region for which a complete dimorphism has been demonstrated.

For example, the intermediate nucleus (In M) of the human hypothalamus (also known as INAH1 and SDN-POA), is on average about twice as large by some measures in males, but there is a tremendous overlap between males and females [] have recently argued that sex differences in brain structure are also not internally consistent (i.e., having one brain characteristic with the “male” form is not a reliable predictor for the form of other brain characteristics).

Regarding brain, behavior, cognition and personality, current data reveal that sex differences in these domains are rarely dimorphic and are often not consistent.

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The argument was built on the conclusion, derived from studies in animals, that sexual differentiation progresses independently in different brain tissues, enabling genetically- and environmentally-induced variation in sexual differentiation of different tissues within the same brain (e.g., []) can change the form of specific brain characteristics (e.g., size, number of neurons, dendritic morphology, number and size of axons, density of receptors) from the “male” form to the “female” form or vice versa, but that this happens independently or exclusively in select brain regions. Yet, following exposure to 15 minutes of stress, dendrites from stressed males had the “female” form (i.e., high density of spines), whereas dendrites from stressed females had the “male” form (i.e., low density of spines).

For example, Shors and colleagues [] found a sex difference in the density of apical dendritic spines on pyramidal neurons in the CA1 area of the hippocampus, with dendrites from male rats having fewer spines compared to dendrites from female rats (see Figure ] with pictures obtained from Prof. In contrast, in the basal dendrites of the same neurons there was no sex difference in intact rats, but a sex difference emerged following the 15 minutes of stress, as the latter resulted in increased spine density in males but not in females (see Figure An example of interaction between sex and environment in determining the structure of brain features. Golgi impregnation of apical dendrites in area CA1 of the hippocampus of male and female rats that did or did not undergo 15 minutes of stress 24 hours before their brains were removed (The pictures were received from Prof. Shors and are from the study reported in Figure 3 in []). The mean and standard error of the mean density of apical and basal dendritic spines on pyramidal cells in area CA1 of the hippocampus of male and female rats that did or did not undergo 15 minutes of stress 24 hours before their brains were removed.

In other words, if one has the “female” form at the genetic level, one is highly likely to also have the “female” form at the gonadal and genitals level.

Only about 1% of the human population does not fit into one of these two categories of 3G-sex (this is a conservative estimate on the basis of []).

This can be due to either having an intermediate form at one or more levels (e.g., ovotestis, intersex external genitalia), reflecting the fact that the different levels of 3G-sex are not completely dimorphic, or having the “male” form at some levels and the “female” form at other levels (e.g., a person with “male” chromosome complement [XY], “male” gonads [testes] and “female” external genitalia, as in Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome), reflecting the fact that the different levels of 3G-sex are not always consistent (Figure Illustrates* different combinations of complete/high dimorphism and perfect/partial internal consistency at the level of 3G-sex. A system with complete dimorphism (i.e., no overlap between the form in “males” and in “females”) at each level and perfect consistency between levels (i.e., one has the same type of form at all levels).

The latter is represented by the pink and blue vertical bars, with each bar marking the form at each of the three levels of a single “female” and a single “male”, respectively.

However, this assumption does not hold true for sex differences in these other domains.

In fact, it does not hold true even for sex differences in bodily characteristics beyond 3G-sex.

One is that there is an almost dimorphic division into a “male” form and a “female” form at the different levels of 3G-sex.

The second is that there is a high degree of consistency between one’s form at the different levels.

About 1% of the human population is identified as “intersex” because of either having an intermediate form at one or more levels, or having the “male” form at some levels and the “female” form at other levels.

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